​​​​支持羅興亞人難民的事工



100萬羅興亞人難民正湧入孟加拉,面臨巨大人道救援危機。曾於今年二月訪港的孟加拉牧師Edward Ayub和其所屬長老會正開展救援事工,立時派發食物包,以解人道需要,亦計劃有長期支援,設立教育和醫療平台,並傳揚福音。懇請你代禱和支持。

奉獻支持Edward Ayub之羅興亞人事工(選项目4b)

羅興亞人難民緊急救援計劃 - 孟加拉長老會

編寫者:Edward Ayub

更新(2017年9月23日)




大约100萬羅興亞人難民,包括先前自1978、1998、2016和2017年來的舊人[超過48萬新來者]-每天還有更多的人前來;75%的難民是女性,1.6萬名帶嬰兒的婦女和超過26萬名孩子,沒有住所-下雨的時候,很多人在露天的路邊,沒有食物,營地所有的路都是泥濘的,沒有公共廁所,水危機和健康問題已經失控-非人的條件。即使對先前來的人,教育也無法保證。食品與健康狀況很快就會惡化。

個人、社會團體、政府、聯合國和非政府組織:

孟加拉人都表現出最大的熱情,特別是當地人,孟加拉軍隊已經承擔起救援分配的責任,新難民的登記將需要超過一年的時間,伊斯蘭群體從入口處到營地非常活躍,食物分配是一個挑戰,所以成千上萬的人都在追逐運送食品的卡車,而現在不期望能穿上衣服了。

孟加拉長老會的計畫:

長期需要-需要通過神的話進行輔導的空間/中心、教育設施、供水和醫療設備。

短期需求-急需食品和醫藥。

給予什麼?

食物包-10公斤大米、2公斤木豆/扁豆、1升油、維生素與營養片、或生理鹽水、加上燒火木材、火柴盒、鹽、洋蔥、炊具、燈具等的現金。這些小物品在已開始的商店可以購得。

成本?

每份食物包:1000-1500孟加拉塔卡(BDT)(12-18美元)的實物與500 BDT(6美元)的現金。

[分類:600 BDT(7.2美元)的10公斤大米+200 BDT(2.4美元)的2公斤扁豆+100 BDT(1.2美元)的1升油+其他]

多少費用?

預算:將取決於我們按我們有的資金和每個食物包1500 BDT(18美元)這個基礎上而計畫的食物包數量。

什麼時間?

如果可能的話,我們可以在下次訪問期間進行分發。

運輸成本-卡車和其他依賴於食物包的數量,而大約是2-3萬BDT(241-362美元)。

孟加拉長老會的員工和志願者-為配送而產生的食物和行程費用-4萬BDT(483美元)。

食物包可以從代格納夫(Teknaf)-附近的城鎮-做好,必須通過DC辦事處和孟加拉軍隊的事先安排分配。否則,先前的舊人和當地的孟加拉人會爭搶救災物資-這是風險。如果難民看到一輛救濟卡車,他們會勢如洪水般要爭取得到一個食物包。

為什麼緊急救援?

孟加拉長老會的目標是為了長期的教育工作、供水和醫療援助。但目前很急需的還是難民的生存。 如果這些人沒有吃的,就會出現嚴重的人道主義危機,失去控制。

通過確保政府機構的合作,提供緊急援助將有助於長老會的長期工作。這是與政府建立關係。這是出於良心的考慮,不是為了避免現在的危機,而是等待長遠的計畫。

長期計畫將在幾次訪問之後開展。在發展我們的戰略方面,我們越來越清晰。

在任何長期的工作開展之前,孟加拉長老會需要為將來的行動解決一些場地/中心的問題。這可以通過在難民營附近購買/租賃小塊土地來達到。沒有可租的房子,所以員工隊伍會需要一些房屋設施。如果學校和診所計畫有進展,那麼就需要一些空間。通過輔導做福音工作 [與個人和家庭有時間一起]是我們接觸羅興亞人的策略。

銀行辦公室裡的一個銀行家的談話-女銀行家問我:「你們基督徒和佛教徒是一樣的嗎?」我說不。她繼續說:「我們在教科書上讀到,佛教信仰非暴力,殺害生命是大罪。但是現在我們看到佛教徒對人類是兇殘的。這是什麼佛教?」…

我寫作的一些部分會隨著形勢、政府政策和緬甸立場的變化而變化。

羅興亞人的起源和歷史[1]:

羅興亞穆斯林是在若開邦(Rakhaine)生活了400多年的少數民族,具有影響力。他們甚至控制了孟都(Mangdou)港口的貿易。他們並沒有被給予緬甸公民的身份,且不能去若開邦以外的地區。若開邦中世紀之時被稱為[rosang],而吉大港語(Chittagonian)的變形形式[rohang]來自於[rosang]。[rohang]的居民就成為了「羅興亞人」。根據歷史,公元前1500年來自印度東北部澳洲土著部落的「庫魯克」(Kurukh)族群開始在阿拉幹(Arakan)棲息,然後孟加拉印度教徒改信了伊斯蘭,波斯人、土耳其人、莫臥爾人(Mughol)、阿拉伯和帕坦(Pathan,印度西北國境阿富汗人)商人開始生活在孟加拉灣沿岸一帶。羅興亞人是這些種族的混血後代。

公元八世紀阿拉伯人滲入時期,彼時[rohan]開始被稱為[羅興亞人]。在九世紀和十世紀時期,現今的若開被稱為[Rohang]。學者們說起源於阿拉伯的詞語[羅興亞](Ruhingya)的意思是[得救]。公元1044年,當時緬甸信奉正統教派的國王阿奴律陀(Anaohota)解決了若開地區的佛教徒問題。這些佛教徒被稱為[mog],代表他們因搶劫而名聲不好,而莫臥爾王朝把他們趕入了叢林。

1430-1784年期間,孟加拉語與波斯語被一起使用進行文學寫作和實踐。當時若開(Rosang)2.2萬平方英里(5.7萬平方公里)的土地是獨立的。其時阿拉幹(Arakan)有兩個獨立的王國,但在1785年與緬甸王朝統一。緬甸國王佔領了這片土地並解決了激進的佛教徒問題。而後,整個緬甸的土地都在英國的統治之下。英國統計出139個少數民族部落,但不包括羅興亞人。緬甸於1948年獨立,而羅興亞人在議會中有代表。但隨著1968年的奈溫(Ne Win)政變,緬甸的歷史開始轉變為排斥羅興亞人,甚至開始將他們從他們的土地上除去。

若開邦(Rakhaine)[原名阿拉幹]是緬甸西北部省邦,位於山脈和海洋之間廣闊的平原上。

語言與文化:

羅興亞人有自己的語言但沒有文字。吉大港方言和若開穆斯林有相似的語言。烏都語、印地語和阿拉伯語的混合用語出現在他們的語言當中。我的一些親戚與來自若開邦的穆斯林結婚。我講的像羅興亞人那種差不多的方言。我國其他地區的人不能與羅興亞人交流。當地方言很難學,甚至很難理解,所以國家的其他地方需要使用翻譯。但所有的羅興亞人都懂一些孟加拉語。

孟加拉人在孟加拉歷史中被[mog]攻擊和搶劫。在孟加拉語中有一個共同的說法,如「moger mulluk」的意義是「Mog王朝」。意思是Mog可以為所欲為而無需面對任何控訴。

羅興亞人的滲入過程和冰毒藥片(Yabba Tablet):

幾個世紀以來,若開邦羅興亞人的種族清洗一直都在進行。彼時1784年緬甸國王佔領若開邦,那時暴行就開始了。1799年3.5萬羅興亞人逃向吉大港生活。緬甸1948年獨立,而1962年軍事統治開始上台。自那時以來,國家性的迫害開始了。1970年公民權利被剝奪,並在1974年取消了他們的投票權。通過發起「龍王計畫」的行動,緬甸開始剷除被認為是外國僑民的羅興亞人。1978年超過35萬的羅興亞人逃入孟加拉,但約有25萬通過聯合國達成的協議被遣返回去。1982年緬甸承認了國內135個民族的國民身份,但沒有羅興亞人。

緬甸自1978年以來已成功驅趕羅興亞人。這些民族團體被軍事政權和現在的緬甸人稱為孟加拉恐怖分子。幾個世紀以來緬甸一直相信羅興亞人屬於孟加拉,但他們佔領了緬甸的土地。孟加拉吉大港和其它地方的很多公民來這裡定居是真實的,但已經幾個世紀了。

甚至在驅趕羅興亞人進入孟加拉之前,緬甸已經扶植冰毒藥片商人。每天數百萬讓人上癮的冰毒毒品走私進入我們國家。最近孟加拉總理甚至停止了在納夫河(Naf)邊的捕魚業,去控制冰毒。在我們國家的任何角落都可以買到這些藥片,有錢的年輕人沉迷於此。這些藥片很昂貴,富有的年輕人正在使用它們。孟加拉的下一代被東南部的冰毒走私所殘害。頂級商人有很強的財團,甚至有一名國會議員正在因這種走私行為受刑事調查。

最近的種族清洗是在1978年、2010年、2012年,而最後是2016-2017年。

孟加拉的小城代格納夫(Teknaf)現在是所謂的羅興亞人小鎮。

為什麼種族清洗?

[Mog]或[Bormi]希望看到緬甸是一人一國、一種語言和一種文化。2011年他們用迫擊炮殺害了克欽(Kachin)Lim Pa村莊的所有基督徒。1978年,緬甸開始摧毀整個若開邦,現今仍在繼續[Prof. Muntasir Mamun]。若開邦大部分穆斯林年輕人和領導人被緬甸軍隊和當地佛教徒殺害。

對羅興亞人危機的觀察:

大部分是婦女與她們的孩子和老年人正在進入孟加拉,而不是他們的年輕人。我問過許多有關他們年輕人的下落。有人說他們被殺了,有些人加入了自由戰鬥,而有些人躲到了山裡。

每一天都有羅興亞人來到我們國家,但他們仍然沒有住所和食物維生。

許多人在他們旅途中被採訪過,他們說他們中的一些人為得到船上的空間曾付5000 BDT(60美元)或1萬BDT(121美元)的費用。緬甸警方正在配合他們的公民準備船隻。

成千上萬的羅興亞人生活在不衛生的條件下-我們沒有看到任何的洗手間和厠所、安排做飯[每天他們需要大量的柴火而森林將受到破壞]、沒有足夠的水保持清潔衛生,因此,嚴重的衛生危機是不可避免的。這將很快導致流行性疾病。

富有財力的羅興亞人在科克斯巴扎爾(Cox Bazar)集市和吉大港租房子。政府決定將他們轉移到營地。據報導,單單在科克斯巴扎爾幾千人住在出租的房子裡。這將是一個關鍵的問題,因為他們說他們有合適的地方。所以把所有羅興亞人聚集在一個地方的決定將會是一個挑戰。

代格納夫的人口是28.2萬,但超過25萬新落戶的羅興亞人居住在這裡-將有更多會來。

孟加拉部落基督徒的處境:

孟加拉吉大港穆斯林已經向部族佛教徒給出了15天內離開城市的期限。所以我已被吉大港的牧師告知,他們的部族信徒害怕受到攻擊。一些人已經不去工作的地方了。一些穆斯林教士認為,如果穆斯林不能住在若開邦,部族應被迫回到緬甸。也有若開邦部族居住在孟加拉南部沿海地區。這些若開人也被迫害,但本質不同的是因為政府致力於保護他們,並不像緬甸所做的。

部族基督徒工人在羅興亞人中間的事工回應存在風險。這些難民對緬甸佛教原教旨主義者的暴行深感悲痛。他們經歷的仇恨會激勵他們報復部族。當地的穆斯林會激化局勢。但是,為了做好事,基督徒部族應該冒險,並證明有佛教背景的部族基督徒與緬甸的佛教徒不同。

我們已經看到在班多爾班山道(Bandarban Hill Tract)邊有新的難民,但一星期後,出於安全的原因,他們被疏散到科克斯巴扎爾的另一邊。另一方面,超過2.5萬名的難民已從山道區域轉移到了Balukhali營地。為此,羅興亞人認識到吉大港部族並未表現出對無助的羅興亞人的關注,甚至沒有給予任何庇護。吉大港部族與來自平原土地上的孟加拉人已經有問題了,所以他們不想看到羅興亞穆斯林在當中。因為這些羅興亞人可能攻擊佛教徒和他們的機構,以報復阿拉幹的佛教徒Mog。

孟加拉與緬甸的經濟:

4000萬美元。孟加拉與緬甸正在討論建設從中國昆明到孟加拉代格納夫部分連接亞洲的公路。孟加拉另一個從吉大港到靠近緬甸邊境Gundum的泛亞鐵路項目正在進行中。

孟加拉希望通過旅遊做生意,因為我們擁有科克斯巴扎爾-世界上最長的海灘。如果孟加拉連接緬甸和中國,甚至從泰國、中國的公路,經濟會得到更深的發展。所以孟加拉顯出最高程度的耐心。本月迄今為止,緬甸直升機多次越過無人區,但孟加拉外交部只是通知緬甸大使表示反對。但孟加拉人向政府施壓,要求加強外交,並站在難民一方,提供最大限度的援助。

印度和中國正在利用緬甸港口的優勢,但孟加拉正在使用他們的港口。緬甸的港口很深,所以孟加拉商人使用他們的港口會比使用新加坡的省錢。因為沒有協議,目前孟加拉的貨物出口是通過新加坡的港口,如果有協議,從孟加拉最大的海港吉大港到Mangdou港口只需要8個小時。所以孟加拉是不會做任何破壞未來經濟的事情。

超過4萬的羅興亞人在印度-這些羅興亞人已經在印度東北邦,而他們中的一些人已經與其他地方的印度人混雜。當政的印度人民黨(BJP)正在考慮將他們遣返回緬甸。有一則由羅興亞人呈遞印度最高法院的令狀申請,但政府要求法院不要反對政府的這些措施,因為這些羅興亞人與國際伊斯蘭恐怖組織有聯繫。羅興亞人說遣返他們回去會違反國際移民組織法律和聯合國難民署。

諾貝爾經濟學獎得主昂山素季:

昂山素季是緬甸軍政府中最妥協的女士。她的威脅是緬甸議會,其中四分之一的成員來自軍方,她的英國丈夫和兩個孩子,現有憲法不允許任何有外國配偶的人成為緬甸的領袖。因此,即使在取得壓倒性勝利後,她也不能扮演先前的民主偶像角色。她違背了她在人權運動中所說的一切。素季的立場一直是反對羅興亞人-在她競選的過程中回避了這個問題,她並不包括任何穆斯林候選人,而她的全國民主聯盟以佛教徒為主。最近,她說羅興亞人是非法的孟加拉移民,而不是若羅興亞人。

所有知識份子都譴責素季的沉默及夥同軍事力量。甚至孟加拉內外也有人要求收回諾貝爾和平獎。最近在衛報上的一篇文章已表明喪失和平獎的理由,同時諾貝爾委員會拒絕這樣做,並拒絕承擔任何獲獎之後逆反活動的責任。

昂山素季處於複雜的麻煩之中。英國外交部長說,素季在任期內遇到困難。她也說這個問題已經持續了幾個世紀,而她的新政府不應該因沒有解決這種情況而受到指責。西方仍然同情素季,考慮到她的局限,所以他們願意給她時間。

素季的另一個挑戰是她受到軍方的影響。緬甸軍隊自稱他們是緬甸真正的民族主義者,而他們在緬甸統治了五十年之後是佛教真正的保護者。

對孟加拉的挑戰:

1971年在反對巴基斯坦的解放戰爭中,超過1千萬的孟加拉人在印度成為難民。所以目前我們這一代很多人都經歷了1971年的戰爭場面。盡管孟加拉人因這一遺產而貧窮,但羅興亞人在得到公眾的款待是幸運的。各種各樣的人如洪水般紛紛表達他們同情和關心羅興亞人,雖然需求很高。我已經看到難民是如何不顧他們自身的安全而在救濟車後面奔跑的。

舊難民的生活方式-舊難民已經得到聯合國難民署和其他非政府組織的救濟,因此他們的工作是享受電影和繁育他們的人口。這些閒散的大腦在任何有危險的工作上都有動力。

緬甸政府認為,羅興亞人叛軍在孟加拉受訓,而在緬甸使用孟加拉的國境實施襲擊行動。孟加拉一直否認這一指控。孟加拉提出建立聯合巡邏來處理這個問題,但被緬甸拒絕了。

由於文化和宗教的相似之處,羅興亞人可以很容易的滲入孟加拉人當中。他們很快前往全國各地。一些羅興亞人已經在達卡附近被發現和逮捕,甚至在孟加拉最北端Bhurungamari的一個家庭被送回了營地。在班多爾班山與緬甸長260公里邊界地帶的丘陵地區,難民可以很容易借助山區轉移到任何地方。

恐怖主義和走私的高風險:緬甸自由戰士的總部在孟加拉。他們可能與伊斯蘭國和阿爾蓋達-穆斯林恐怖組織-有關。這些組織已經開始在孟加拉與緬甸邊境進行他們的議程,他們在中東失敗之後,要建立一個包括若開邦和部分孟加拉的獨立的穆斯林國家。

與中國和印度兩國的友誼:兩國都要保持與孟加拉和緬甸的良好關係。中國參與了在孟加拉的很多大型項目,像名為帕德瑪大橋(Padma Bridge)夢想工程的建設。所以孟加拉必須表現出最大的耐心,以從國際社會獲得同情。

孟加拉的穩定-我國孟加拉穆斯林中有一小部分原教旨主義者。他們已經開始抗議緬甸佛教徒。主要的佛教寺廟和學校在警察的嚴格保護下。另一方面,緬甸其他地區的清真寺也遭到了攻擊,盡管他們的警察聲稱要保護這些清真寺。一旦攻擊緬甸境內清真寺的報導傳給這裡的穆斯林,就有可能使佛教機構和人民受到攻擊。

同時,Delwar Hossain Saidi的兒子-1971年戰爭被判處終身監禁的罪犯-去難民區發放救濟品,並為伊斯蘭大會黨(Jamaat-e Islami)招募成員。警察想逮捕他,但沒能找到。這是孟加拉的情報報告:Tajuddin自稱殺害謝赫·穆吉布·拉赫曼(Sheik Mujibur Rahman) [孟加拉國父]的兇手,現被判死刑在逃,是8月21日襲殺謝赫·哈西娜(Sheik Hasina)的武器供應者,而另一些人則在巴基斯坦,他們與緬甸軍隊合作,企圖推翻政府。

盡管世界各國領導人、組織和機構正在為孟加拉總理及其人民接受難民而鼓掌,但主要反對黨[佔35-40%的人口,但在議會之外]不斷指責人民聯盟領導的政府在處理這個問題上的失敗。政府需要有耐心、有熱心和細心對這些政治宣傳作出反應和回應。

孟加拉穆斯林想要達到什麼目的?

孟加拉穆斯林有自己的議程-他們正在開放他們的清真寺和伊斯蘭學校為難民提供避難所。在我通過代格納夫南部到沙阿帕里(Shah Pari)島訪問期間,我看到了孟加拉穆斯林很積極活動,拍照,製作視頻,訪談難民,發放救濟物品,顯示他們的慷慨、通過提供交通工具幫助他們到達難民營、發放現金等。意味著他們處於與從納夫河船上下來的羅興亞人會面的最前線。

保衛伊斯蘭聯盟(Hefazat-e Islam)說:「給我們武器,我們將解放阿拉幹作為一個獨立的國家。不獨立羅興亞人的問題不會得到解決。」

會發生什麼事情?

大多數難民都在他們的國家留下了他們所有的財產。一些難民靠有些但很少的現金生活。他們中的一些已經以非常便宜的價格出售了他們的牛。這些方法很快就會用完。所以對數百萬的難民來說,真正的危機快到來。聯合國兒童基金會說:超過26萬名的兒童將面臨嚴重的健康問題和營養不良。死亡人數已經開始出現,因為很少有人因沒有食物而死亡。從十月底開始,冬天就要來了-不久之後就需要超過百萬條的毛毯。

孟加拉提議為羅興亞人建立安全區已經被緬甸否決。

大量的羅興亞人分散在孟加拉。他們中的大多數都不會回去,因為他們在這裡是安全的。他們中的許多人獲得了身份證,他們是選民,得到護照去旅行和到孟加拉之外的地方,他們中的許多人已經娶了孟加拉女孩,並且許多孟加拉人也娶了羅興亞人女孩等等。我問過許多羅興亞人在確保安全的情況下是否願意回到自己的土地上。有些人想回去,但許多人說:「請在孟加拉殺了我們,但不要告訴我們回去。」

犯罪-許多非法的婚姻存在孟加拉人和羅興亞人之間、兒童綁架、強姦幼女、搶劫和盜竊等等。有害的未來正等待著孟加拉。

這是預測:如果這些羅興亞人有反對孟加拉政府的陰謀,這就很難把他們遣返回去。緬甸軍隊已經在邊境地區設置地雷阻止所有回歸的羅興亞人。一些羅興亞人已經死於地雷爆炸。這正發生在2017年9月18日,當一些羅興亞人摧毀了孟加拉人的種植園以示抗議時,他們襲擊了當地的孟加拉人。他們佔領了森林苗圃地作為他們的房子。所以相對於當地的孟加拉人,人數多的羅興亞人能對當地政府和孟加拉人造成任何襲擊。

大多數難民不願返回家園。他們在這裡很安全,不需工作就可得到救濟,同時他們也可以為額外的收入而工作。所以這是正常的,他們不會冒險把他們的家庭和生命置於另一個必然毀滅的情況中。1978年,羅興亞人第一次來,1979年期間,孟加拉和緬甸之間有一些協議,促使羅興亞人回歸。但是許多難民不願意回去,聯合國難民署也站在他們這一邊,試圖說服孟加拉政府不要強迫任何人。在某些時候,難民襲擊了警察,扣押了警察的武器,抓獲了難民專員。但最終,政府能夠把他們遣送回去。

孟加拉正在成為羅興亞人或者緬甸的阿拉幹的好鄰居。孟加拉人仍感激印度1971年所給的1000萬孟加拉難民。所以在未來羅興亞人走後,他們的國家會對孟加拉友好,而經濟合作將加強。這種關係會威脅到緬甸和印度,中國和俄羅斯對孟加拉將會是熱心的。

有一天羅興亞人會回到他們的土地上,有一天甚至從緬甸獨立可能會成為現實,雖然會有一些限制。盡管面臨著嚴重的危機,孟加拉享有特權-羅興亞人會感激,而會致力於與孟加拉和孟加拉人建立並保持良好的關係。那麼,超級大國試圖通過經濟和投資來實現的,孟加拉卻贏得了羅興亞人的心。這對於作為鄰居的孟加拉是好的。另一方面,孟加拉表現出慷慨大方,值得被超級大國讚賞。在這場危機中,我國的聲譽將會增長。我們的國家現今所做的將是一個讓世界跟隨的持久的榜樣。

孟加拉長老會應該做什麼?

需求是巨大的,並沒有測度。可以採取短期的緊急措施和長期的措施。但孟加拉長老會希望看到長期的教育、健康和技能發展援助。

教會:[將被指派的]基督徒員工在現場必須開展基督教活動。我們已經會見了一些那裡的地下信徒。

我們可以告訴政府那裡有基督徒,我們作為教會需要照顧他們。這是媒體中一個常見的新聞,超過500名的印度教徒被迫和穆斯林一起來到孟加拉。我看到了印度教團體/寺廟關心的橫幅和標識。

羅興亞人流亡期間,如果神顯出一些皈依的結果,信徒將會帶著基督教回到他們的家園。到目前為止還沒有被報導的教會存在,所以這是接觸難民的策略。未來的若開邦將對基督徒事工敞開。我們應該為盡量多的難民在被遣返時帶著福音而祈禱。他們需要高品質的基督教培訓,以便他們在返回後能夠繼續他們的基督教之旅。

教育:我與若開邦難民談了他們在緬甸的教育情況。他們說:「他們必須用緬甸語讀書,學校裡的教科書都是緬甸文,即使有人上大學,也沒有學位,沒有得到政府工作的認可。這意味著種族清洗的歷史進程已經進入到了所有部門很長一段時間了。」

在老營地有學校-我會對他們的課程進行研究。我更喜歡為羅興亞人設計一個單獨的課程,並且我們需要緬甸專家-特別是受過教育的羅興亞人-的幫助。對他們的教育中最大的幫助會是用他們自己的文字進行教育。我不知道他們自己有任何文字。他們通用緬甸文字。當然,用羅興亞語開發一些課程是耗時的。我們不應該用孟加拉課程教育難民兒童,因為我們希望遣返他們。如果用他們自己的教育和文化教育他們,他們會能夠熱愛自己的緬甸,並嘗試回到他們的母國。所以,建議這些步驟-在沒有任何緬甸語課程的情況下,立即開始孟加拉語課程,然後是緬甸語的教育課程[通過翻譯或從緬甸引進緬甸語課程],而後是開發羅興亞文字。

為了長久持續,一個民族如果沒有他們的文化根源和繁榮,就無法生存。我們需要教育他們的歷史、文化和社會價值。基督教可以傳播到羅興亞的教育課程體系中。

兒童健康:這個影響會很快會發生在超過25萬的孩子身上。政府正在投入疫苗以確保孩子遠離任何傳染病。當地醫生和護士也包括國際醫療隊提供的一些臨床服務將會有幫助。

技術/職業培訓以維生:難民沒有工作,是浪費時間。孟加拉長老會在職業技能方面可以培訓他們-如小引擎修理和焊接,這些我們都有經驗。

需要牢記的事情:

無論我們在代格納夫地區進行任何項目,我們需要建立可見性來維持孟加拉長老會的觀念。

吉大港基督徒和非基督徒員工在更好和有效的溝通將會起作用。

吉大港是傳福音最難的地方。

孟加拉長老會需要通過政府的祝福工作,以避免任何複雜的情況。對他們來說,開放的基督教會將是另一個麻煩,特別是在當前多方面危機的情況下。

如果難民去了緬甸,孟加拉長老會可以繼續長期的工作。但似乎緬甸政府不會立即回應世界的呼籲。緬甸軍隊正在團結其他緬甸國民對呼籲不妥協。

[1] Source: Wikipedia and The Daily Sanbad, Dated: 10 September 2017.














以下是Edward Ayub牧師的報告:
Subject: Update on Rohingyas
Date: 23 September 2017 at 12:07:13 GMT+8

EMERGENCY RELIEF PROGRAM FOR ROHINGYA REFUGEES
PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF BANGLADESH – PCB
Prepared by: Edward Ayub

UPDATES:
About 1 million Rohingya refugees including the old ones [more than 480,000 new comers] came since 1978, 1998, 2016 and 2017 – still many more are coming every day; 75% are women, 16,000 women carrying babies and more than 260,000 children, no shelter – so many are on the roadside in open sky during rains and without food, all the lanes in the camp are muddy, no sanitary, crisis of water and health issue is out of control – inhuman condition. Education could not be ensured even for the old ones. The situation of food and health would deteriorate soon.

INDIVIDUAL, social groups, GOVERNMENT, UN and NGOs:
Bangladeshis are showing their utmost hospitality specially the locals, Bangladesh army has been given the responsibility for relief distribution, registration of the new refugees which would take more than a year, Islamic groups are very active from the entry point to the camp sites, food distribution is a challenge so thousands are chasing the trucks carrying food items but not expecting clothes now.

PLAN OF PCB:
Long-Term - Need some space/center for the operation of COUNSELING through the Word of God, EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES, WATER SUPPLY and MEDICAL FACILITIES.

Short-term Immediate Need of Food and Medicine.

WHAT TO GIVE?
Food package – 10 kgs rice, 2 kgs dal/lentil, 1 liter oil, vitamin & nutrition tablet, OR saline, plus cash money for fire wood, match box, salt, onions, utensils, lamps, etc. These small items are available in the shops already started.

COST?
Each packet: 1,500 BDT - 1,000 BDT in kinds & 500 in Cash.
[Breakdown: 10 kgs rice 600 BDT + 2 kgs lentils 200 BDT + 1 Liter oil 100 BDT + others]

HOW MUCH?
BUDGET would depend on the quantity of packets we plan on the basis of fund available and @ 1,500 BDT per packet

WHEN? If possible, the distribution could be done during our next visit.

Carrying costs – trucks and others depend on the quantity of packets but approximately 20,000-30,000 BDT.

PCB Staff & Volunteers - Food & Traveling for the Distribution – 40,000 BDT.

The packets could be done from Teknaf, the nearby town and must be distributed through DC office and Bangladesh Army through prior-arrangements. Otherwise the old ones and the local Bengalis are snatching the relief goods – risky. If the refugees see one truck of relief, they are flooding and fighting to get one packet.

WHY EMERGENCY RELIEF?
PCB ‘s goal is to work for the long-term in education, water supply and medical assistance. But the need at the moment is so urgent for the survival of the refugees still coming. If these people are not fed there would be serious humanitarian crisis without control.

Providing Emergency Assistance would work for PCB’s long-term work by ensuring cooperation from the government agencies. This is to establish relationship with the authorities. This is for conscience sake not to avoid the present crisis but wait for the long-term plan.

LONG-TERM plans would be developed after few more visits. We are becoming more and more clear in developing our strategy.

Before any long-term works, PCB needs to settle some location/center for its future on-going operations. This could be done by purchasing/leasing small piece of land near the refugee camps. Houses are not available for renting so staff team would need some housing facilities. If school and clinical plans progress, then there would be need for some space. Evangelism through Counseling [Time with individuals & families] is our strategy for reaching the Rohingyas.


THE EXILE OF ROHINGYAS – The Most Persecuted and Stateless Ethnic Minority

PREPARED BY: AYUB

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF BANGLADESH - PCB

 
The conversation of a banker inside the bank office – The female banker asked me, “Are you Christians and Buddhists the same?” I told no. She continued, “We have read in our text book that Buddhism believes in non-violence and killing life is grave sin. But now we see that Buddhists are ferocious toward humans. What kind of Buddhism is this?” I have told her that Buddhists are not only killing Muslims but Christians in many parts of the world.

 
[Some of the portions of my writing would change with the changes of situations, government policies and Myanmar’s positions
 
Origin and History of the ROHINGYAS[1]:

Ruhingya Muslims are minority in Rakhaine living there for more than 400 years but influential. They even control the business in Mangdou port. They are not given Myanmar citizenship and cannot go outside of Rakhaine area. Rakhaine was known as ‘rosang’ in the middle ages and in Chittagonian distortion form ‘rohang’ has come from ‘rosang’. The inhabitants of ‘rohang’ have become ‘Rohingya’. According to the history, the ‘kurukh’ ethnic group of Austric tribe from North-eastern India started to habitat in Arakan in 1500 BC, then Bengali Hindus latter converted to Islam, Persian, Turkish, Mughol, Arab and Pathan merchants started to live at the coastal part of the Bay of Bengal. Rohingyas are the mixed generation of these races.

 In the eight centuries AD, during the Arabs penetration, the then ‘rohan’ was started to be known as ‘Rohingyas’. In ninth and tenth centuries the present Rakhaine was known and ‘Rohang’. Scholars says that the meaning of the Arabic-origin word ‘Ruhingya’ is ‘rescued’. In 1044 AD Anaohota, the fundamentalist king of then Burma settled Buddhists in Rakhaine area. These Buddhists were known as ‘mog’ reputed badly for their robbery and whom the Mughols drove into the jungle.

During 1430-1784, Bengali language was used with Persian for literature writing and practice. The then Rosang of 22,000 sq miles [36,762 sq kms]  territory was independent. The then Arakan in two divisions was independent but united with Burman in 1785. Burmese king occupied the land and settled radical Buddhists. Then the land with whole of Burma went under the British. The British made a list of 139 ethnic tribes but did not include the Rohingyas. Myanmar got her independence in 1948 and the Rohingyas representatives were in the parliament. But in 1968 with the Ne Win’s coup, the history of Myanmar started to flow in different direction to ostracize the Rohingyas and even started to eliminate them from their land.

 Rakhaine [formerly Arakan] is the North-Western state of Myanmar situated with vast plain land between hills and sea.

 Language and Culture:

Rohingyas have their own language but no script for writing. There are similar language among Chittagonian local dialect and Rakhaine Muslims. Urdu, Hindi and Arabic mixtures are found in their language. Some of my relative married from Arakan Muslims. I speak the almost similar local dialect like the Rohingyas do. The people of other parts of our country cannot communicate with the Rohingyas. The local dialect is so difficult to learn and even understand so the remaining part of the country use translator. But all Rohingyas understand some Bangla.

 Bengali people were disturbed by the ‘mog’ attack and looting in the Bengali history. There is a common saying in Bangla like “moger mulluk” meaning “the empire of Mog”. The meaning is that Mog could do whatever they like without facing any protest.

 Process of Rohingya Infiltration & YABBA Tablet:

The ethnic cleansing of the Rohingyas from the Rakhine has been going on since centuries. In 1784 the then Burmese king occupied Arakan and atrocity started since then. In 1799, 35,000 Rohingyas fled into Chittagong for life. Burma got independence in 1948 and in 1962 the military power came into power. And since then the state-run persecution got started. In 1970, the citizenship had been stopped and their voting power had been cancelled in 1974. Through the operation of Dragon King, Burma started to eradicate the Rohingyas who were considered as foreigners. 1978, more than 350,000 Rohingyas fled into Bangladesh but about 250,000 repatriated through an agreement negotiated by UN. In 1982, Myanmar gave recognition to 135 ethnic groups as their nationals but not the Rohingyas.

Myanmar has been successfully chasing the Rohingyas since 1978. These ethnic group is called as Bengali Terrorists by the military regime and now all Burmese [former name of Myanmar citizen]. Myanmar for centuries believe that Rohingyas belong to Bangladesh but they have occupied the land of Myanmar. This is true that many Chittagonian and citizens of other parts of Bangladesh went to settle there but centuries ago.

Even before driving the Rohingyas into Bangladesh, Myanmar has been nurturing the Yabba Tablet businessmen. Millions and millions of Yabba drugs for addiction are smuggled every day into our country. The Prime Minister of Bangladesh recently even stopped fishing in the river Naf to control the Yabba. These tablets are available at any corner of our country and the rich youths are addicted into this. The tablets are costly so rich youths are using those. the next generation of Bangladesh is destroyed by the South-Eastern Yabba smuggling. The top level businessmen have strong syndicate even one of the Members of the Parliament is under criminal investigation of this smuggling.

The recent ethnic cleansing has been in 1978, 2010, 2012 and finally in 2016-2017.
Teknaf, the small town of Bangladesh is now called the Town of the Rohingyas.


WHY ETHNIC CLEANSING?

The ‘Mog’ or ‘Bormi’ wants to see Myanmar one man, one country, one language and one culture. In 2011, they killed all Christians by mortar shells at Lim Pa village in Kachin. In 1978, the Burmese started to destroy all Rakhaine which is still going on [Prof. Muntasir Mamun]. Most of the youths and leaders of Arakan Muslims have been killed by the Myanmar army and local Buddhists.

Observations on Rohingya Crisis:

Mostly women with their children and old generations are entering into Bangladesh but not their youths. I have asked many about the whereabouts of their youths. Some said that they have been killed, some have joined the freedom fighting, and some are in hide in the hills.
Every day the Rohingyas are coming to our country but still no shelter and food for living.
Many have been interviewed on their journey and they have said that some of them have paid 5,000 BDT [70 USD] or 10,000 BDT [120 USD] fare to get room in the boat. Myanmar police is cooperating their citizen to get boats.
No sanitation of thousands of Rohingyas – we did not see any toilet and latrine, cooking arrangements [how much firewood they need every day and forests are going to be destroyed], no enough water for maintain cleanliness, so severe hygiene crisis is inevitable. This would result into epidemic soon.
The rich solvent Rohingyas are renting houses in Cox’s Bazaar and Chittagong. The government is determined to transfer to the camp site. According to the report, in Cox’s Bazaar alone few thousands are staying in rental house. This would be a critical issue since they are telling that there is suitable place for them. So the decision of keeping all Rohingyas in one place would be a challenge.

 Teknaf population 282,000 but more than 250,000 Rohingyas are newly settled there – more to come.

 Situation of Tribal Christians in Bangladesh:

Bangladeshi Muslims in CTG part have given ultimatum to tribal Buddhists people to live the city within 15 days. So I have been informed by CTG pastors that their tribal believers are in fear of attack. Some have stopped going to their working-place. Some Muslim clerics believe that if Muslims cannot live in Rakhaine, the tribal should be forced to go back to Myanmar. There are also Rakhaine tribe living in the Sothern coastal part of Bangladesh. These Rakhaine have also been persecuted but the nature is different because the government is committed to protect them unlike Myanmar.

 Tribal Christian workers would have risky response working among the Rohingyas.  These refugees are deeply grieved by the atrocity of the Buddhists fundamentalists in Myanmar. The hatred they have gone through would motivate them to retaliate the tribal. Local Muslims would inflame the situation. But for doing something good, Christian tribal should take risk and prove that the tribal Christians with Buddhist background are different than the Buddhists in Myanmar.

 We have seen new refugees in the Bandarban Hill Tract side but after one week they have been evacuated to the other side of Cox’s Bazaar due to security reason. On the other hand, more than 25,000 refugees have been transferred to Balukhali camp from the Hill Tracts areas. For this, Rohingyas are realizing that CHT tribal are not showing their concern to the helpless Rohingyas even not by giving any shelter. CHT tribal are already in problem with the Bengali settlers from plain land so they do not want to see Rohingya Muslims among them. Because these Rohingyas may attack the Buddhists and their establishments to retaliate against the Buddhist Mog in Arakan.



Bangladesh-Myanmar Economy:

40 million USD. Bangladesh is in discussion with Myanmar in building the connection of Asia Highways from China Kunming to Teknaf part of Bangladesh. Another project in Bangladesh is underway which is Trans-Asian railways up to Gundum near Myanmar border from Chittagong.

Bangladesh wants to do business through tourism since we have Cox’s Bazaar, the longest sea-beech in the world.  If Bangladesh connected with Myanmar and China, highway travel even from Thailand, China, even further would be developed for economic development. So Bangladesh is showing highest degree of patience. So far in this month Myanmar helicopters have crossed no-man’s land several times but Bangladesh Foreign Affairs called the Myanmar ambassador only to express objections. But Bengalis are giving pressure to the government to strengthen diplomacy and stand beside the refugees with utmost assistance.

 India and China are taking the advantage of using Myanmarese ports but Bangladesh is in process of using their ports. Myanmar ports are deep so Bangladesh businessmen would save money using their ports rather than using Singapore. Presently Bangladeshi goods are exported through Singapore since there is not protocol but if there is, it would take only 8 hours to go tot Mangdou port from Chittagong, the largest sea port of Bangladesh. So Bangladesh is not doing anything to devastate the economic future.

 More than 40,000 Rohingyas in India – These Rohingyas have been in India’s North-East states but some of them have mixed with Indians in other parts. The present BJP government is considering to repatriate them into Myanmar. There is a writ petition filed in Indian Supreme Court by some Rohingyas but the government is asking the court not to stand against the government steps since those Rohingyas are being linked with international Islamic terrorist groups. Rohingyas are telling that sending them back would violate IOM laws and UNHCR.

 Nobel Laureate Aung SAn SUU KYI:

Aung San Suu Kyi is the most compromising lady with the military government of Myanmar. Her threat is Myanmar parliament where one-fourth members are from the military, her British husband and two children, the existing Constitution which ensures not to allow anyone having foreign spouse to become the Chief of Myanmar. So even after having landslide victory, she could not play her role as a former icon of democracy. She is violating whatever she said during her movement of human rights. Suu Kyi’s stand has always been against Rohingyas – during her election campaign she avoided the issue, did not include any Muslim nominee and her National league for Democracy is dominated by Buddhists. Recently she said that Rohingyas are illegal Bengali migrants not Rohingyas.

All intellectuals have condemned Suu Kyi for her silence and tuning with the military forces. Even there are people in and outside Bangladesh demanding to take Nobel Peace Prize back. Recently one article at the Guardian has shown the grounds of forfeiting the prize when the Noble committee gas declined to do that and to take any responsibility of the reverse activities after winning the prize.

 Aung San Suu Kyi  is in complex troubles. British Foreign Minister said that Suu Kyi is in difficulties in her tenure. She also said that the problem had been  going on since centuries and her new government should not be blamed for not solving the situation. The West is still sympathetic to Suu Kyi in considering her limitations so they are willing to give her time.

Suu Kyi’s another challenge is that she is under army influence. Myanmar army claims themselves as the true nationalists of Myanmar and real protector of Buddhism in Myanmar after their five decades of rule.

 
Challenge to Bangladesh:


In 1971 Liberation War against Pakistan, more than 10 millions Bengalis became refugees in India. So many of our present generation is experience the 1971 war scene now. Rohingyas are fortunate in getting public hospitality in spite of Bangladesh poverty because of this heritage. People from all sorts are flooding to show their compassion and care to the Rohingyas even though the need is very high. I have seen how the refugees are running after the relief truck neglecting their safety.
Life-style of Old Refugees – The old ones are already getting relief from the UNHCR and other NGOs so their job is to enjoy cinemas and reproduce their numbers. These idles brains are motivated in any risky jobs.
Myanmar government believe that Rohingya rebels are trained in Bangladesh and operating attack in Myanmar using Bangladesh territory. Bangladesh has been denying the allegation. Bangladesh has proposed to establish joint-petro to deal the issue but Myanmar rejected.
Since the cultural and religious similarities, Rohingyas can easily be absorbed with Bengalis. They are quickly traveling to different parts of the country. Some Rohingyas have already been found and arrested near Dhaka, and one family even in Bhurungamari, the farthest North of Bangladesh and sent back to the camp. In the hilly areas of Bandarban where there is the longest 260 kms land border with Myanmar, refugees would easily can move anywhere through the hills.
High risk of terrorism and smuggling: Myanmarese freedom fighters are based in Bangladesh. They might be linked with ISIS and Al-Qaida, the Muslims terrorist groups. These groups have already started their agenda in Bangladesh border with Myanmar to establish a separate Muslim state including Rakhaine and parts of Bangladesh after their failure in the Middle East.
Friendship with China and India: Both countries want to maintain good relationship with both Bangladesh and Myanmar. China is involved with lots of mega projects in Bangladesh like the building of the dream project named Padma Bridge. So Bangladesh has to show maximum patience to earn sympathy from the world community.
Stability in Bangladesh – There are small fraction of fundamentalists among the Bengali Muslims in our country. They have already started protesting against Myanmar Buddhists. The major Buddhists temples and schools are under strict police protection. On the other hand, mosques in other parts of Myanmar are under attack even though their police is claiming to protect those. As soon as the reports of attacking the mosques inside Myanmar would reach the Muslims here, there is possibility that Buddhists establishments and people would be under attack.

Meanwhile the son of Delwar Hossain Saidi, the 1971 War crime criminal under life-sentence, went to refugee area to distribute relief and collecting membership for Jamaat-e Islami. The police wanted to arrest him but could not find out. This is Bangladesh Intelligence report that the self-declared killer of Sheik Mujibur Rahman [Father of the Nation] now carrying death sentence, Tajuddin, the arms supplier for the 21st August attack to kill Sheik Hasina and others are in Pakistan from where they have been working with the Myanmar army to bring the government down.

Even though the world leaders, organizations and agencies are applauding the Prime Minister of Bangladesh and its people for accepting the refugees, but the main opposition [35-40% of the population but outside the parliament] is constantly accusing the Awami League led government for failure in every bit to deal the issue. The government needs to be patient, keen and careful to react and respond to the propaganda.

What are Bengali Muslims thinking to achieve?

Muslims in Bangladesh have their own agenda – they are opening their mosques and madrashas for the shelter of the refugees. During my visit through the Teknaf South point to Shah Pari’s Island, I have seen Bengali Muslims are active with their presence, taking pictures, making videos, interviewing the refugees, distributing relief items, showing their generosity, helping them by providing transportation to reach the refugee came, distributing cash money, etc.  That means that they are in the very front line in meeting the Rohingyas just after their getting down from the boat from the Naf River.

 Hefazat-e Islam says, “Give us arms and we would free Arakan as an independent state. Without independence the Ruhingya problem would not be solved.”

What is going to happen?

Most of the refugees have left all their belongings behind in their country. Some refugees have some but little means of cash to live on. Some of them have brought their cows to sell though in very cheap price. This means would be finished soon. So the real crisis is approaching for about millions of refugees. UNICEF says that more than 260,000 children are going to be in serious health problems and malnutrition. The death toll has started to occur since few have died because of no food. Winter season is approaching from the end of October – when more than one millions blankets would be needed not after many days.
Bangladesh proposal of creating Safe Zone for Rohingyas has been rejected by Myanmar.
Huge numbers of Rohingyas are scattered inside Bangladesh. Most of them would not go back since they are safe here. Many of them have got national ID card, they are voters, getting passports to travel and went outside Bangladesh, many of them have married Bengali girls and many Bengalis have married Rohingya girls, etc. I have asked many Rohingyas whether they would go back to their land if security is ensured. Some of then want but many said, “Please kill us inside Bangladesh but do not tell us to go back.”
Crimes – multiple and illegal marriages between Bangladeshis and Rohingyas, child kidnapping, raping of young girls, robbery and theft, etc. would be harmful future is awaiting for Bangladesh.
This is forecast that if the Rohingyas stand against Bangladesh government for some conspiracy, this would be difficult to push them back. Myanmar army has already sets land-mines in the border area to stop any return of the Rohingyas. Some Rohingyas have already died of the mine blasts. This has happened just on 18 September 2017 when some Rohingyas destroyed the plantation of Bengalis but when protested, they attacked the local Bengalis. They have occupied the forest nursery for making their houses. So the outnumbered Rohingyas over local Bengalis would be able to create any attack to the local government and Bengalis.
Most of the refugees would not be willing to go back to their homeland. They are safe here, getting relief without working and at the same time they can work for extra income. So this is normal that they would not take risk of putting their families and lives into another sure-chance of devastation. In 1978, the Rohingyas came for the first time and in mid of 1979, there was some agreement between Bangladesh and Myanmar to take the Rohingyas back. But many refugees were not willing to go back and UNHCR also stood beside them by trying to convince Bangladesh government not to force anyone. At some point the refugees attacked the police camp, seized the police arms and captured the Refugee Commissioner. But finally the government was able to send them back.
Bangladesh is becoming good neighbor to the Rohingyas or Arakan state of Myanmar. Bengalis are still grateful to India for giving 10 million Bengali refugees in 1971. So in the future after the exodus of the Rohingyas, their state would be friendly to Bangladesh and economic cooperation would be strengthened. That relationship would be threatening to Myanmar and India, China and Russia would be zealous to Bangladesh.
Someday the Rohingyas would go back to their land and someday even independence from Myanmar may be a reality with some limitations. Bangladesh is privileged in spite of critical crisis – the Rohingyas would be grateful and would be committed to establish and maintain strong relationship with Bangladesh and Bengali people. So what the super-powers are trying to achieve by economy and investment, but Bangladesh is winning the hearts of the Rohingyas. This would be good for Bangladesh as neighbors. On the other hand, Bangladesh deserves the appreciation from the super-powers by showing generosity. The reputation of our country would grow amidst the crisis. What our country is doing is going to be a lasting example to the world to follow.

 What should PCB do?

Needs are immense and without measure. There are urgent short-term and long-term programs could be taken. But PCB wants to see long-term assistance in education, health and skill development.

Church: The Christian staff “to-be assigned” in the site must start Christian activities. We have met and talked with some underground believers there.

 We can tell the government that there are Christians and we as church need to take care of them. This has been a regular news in the medias that more than 500 Hindus have forced to come to Bangladesh with the Muslims. I have seen banner and sign-board of Hindu groups/temples for their care.

 During the exile of Rohingyas, if God shows some result of conversion, the believers would go back to their homeland with Christianity. So far there is not church in existence reported so this is strategic to reach the refugees. In the future the Rakhaine state would be open for Christian ministry. We should pray for refugee repatriation with the Gospel as many as possible. They would need quality Christian training so that they can continue their Christian journey after their return.

Education: I have talked with the Rakhaine refugees about their education in Myanmar. They said, “They have to read in Burmese language, text books in the schools are in Burmese, no degree is offered even tough someone goes to college, no recognition for getting government job. This means that the historical process of ethnic cleansing has been going through all sectors and for a long time.

There are schools at old camps – I would study about their curriculum. I prefer a separate curriculum for the Rohingyas and we need help from experts of Myanmar specially from the educated Rohingyas. The biggest help in their education would be giving education in their own scripts. I do not know of any script of their own yet. They have gone through Burmese script. This is of course time-consuming to develop some curriculum in Rohingya language. We should not educate the refugee children in Bangladeshi curriculum since we want their repatriation. If they are educated in their own education and culture, they would be able to love their Myanmar and try to go to their motherland. So these steps are recommended – immediate start of education with Bangladesh curriculum in absence of any Burmese curriculum, then education in Burmese curriculum [either by translating or bringing Burmese curriculum from Myanmar], and then developing Rohingya script.

For long-sustaining, a nation cannot survive without their cultural root and prosperity. We need to educate them their history, culture and social values.
Christianity can be transmitted into Rohingya educational curriculum and system.

Children Health: This affect would occur soon for more than 250,000 children. The government is giving vaccine to keep the children from any epidemic. Some clinical service by local doctors and nurses and also by foreign medical team would be helpful.

Technical/vocational Training for livelihood: The refugees are wasting time by no-work. PCB can train them in vocational skills – like small engine repairing and welding for which we have on-going experience.

Things to Keep in Mind:

Whatever programs we undertake there in Teknaf area, we need to establish physical visibility to maintain the philosophy of PCB.
Chittagonian Christian and non-Christian staff would be effective there for better and effective communication.
Chittagong is the hardest place to be reached with the gospel.
PCB needs to work through the blessings of the government to avoid any kind of complicacies. Open Christianization would be an additional headache for them specially for the intelligence in the midst of present multi-faceted crisis.
If the refugees are gone to Myanmar, PCB can continue its work for long-term. But this seems that Myanmar government would not respond to the world appeal immediately. The army of Myanmar is uniting other Myanmar nationals not to compromise with the appeal.


[1] Source: Wikipedia and The Daily Sanbad, Dated: 10 September 2017.


The need in general of the Muslim community in Bangladesh
孟加拉穆斯林社群的需要


Need to Have a chance to hear the full Gospel offer, not partly or not distorted view of the Gospel.
Need assurance of his/her salvation through Bible teaching and knowing testimonies.
Need follow up to learn the Bible, be taught on the basic beliefs, be equipped to survive in the midst of pressure.
Continuous discipling – so that they clearly know the difference in their new faith journey.
Membership with a church, because isolation and remaining as individual believer is risky.
Rehabilitation if new believers are thrown out from the family.
Need encouragement to work in the government level in different professions.
Need enough materials for reading and distributing to their non-Christian friends.
This is an urgent need to equip them in Christian ethics so that they can be faithful in practice and life-style.
Equipping them so that they can give a Bible-based answers to their relatives and friends.
The Muslim community must be transformed – fallen culture needs to reconciled and Christianized.

需要有機會聽到完整的福音,跟進和適當的門徒訓練。因此需要短期培訓和長期培訓。
需要足夠的閱讀材料分發給他們的非基督徒朋友。
裝備他們能夠以聖經為基礎,回答他們親戚朋友的問題。

How could Chinese Christians help in outreaching? 

華人基督徒可以如何幫助外展?

Evangelism: Huge numbers of manpower need to be equipped to share the Gospel directly to a Muslim. Literature distribution – we have more than 80,000 villages with more than 160 million people, having only less than 1% Christians including Catholics.

Discipling: This area is the weakest area in church building works specially among the Muslims so we see lots of backsliding when they cannot survive in pressure, many are afraid to be visible and bear testimony due to fear of persecution. Many are compromising in Christian ethics since they are not properly discipled.

Training: MBCs need residential long-term training to be transformed in Christianity. Missionaries

or expatriates can teach modules for week-long where new believers, church planters and

old believers/leaders could attend. These trainings need also budget.

Publication: Supporting for printing discipleship materials production –

These materials have been recently produced by us and used among the cell group

members of our church building areas. Every year over 500 copies of the materials are

needed only for the church planting areas of Presbyterian Church of Bangladesh [PCB].

But when these materials would be asked and used by other mission groups, then many more copies would be a need.

 Supporting the Church Builders [Planters] – These church workers are moving from place to place after staying for a short time in one area. They are moving with their families and children. They are like evangelists and missionaries in the book of Acts. So they cannot be self-sustaining and dependent on the church they build, so they need support for their livelihood. Our mission tries to support them financially as full-time worksers [asPaul received fund from the Philippian Church, he fully devoted in God’s work] so that they can concentrate in their works without being burdened for their family expenses.

 Our mission pays minimum 200 USD per month to a church planter’s family for family expenses, children education, medical, and Provident Fund, etc. The conveyances or traveling is additional.

 Children Home – The home is for the second generation of the Muslim converts. Our mission needs to educate and train the next generation for the long-run fruits. These children are in Muslims communities, who do not have proper secular education, they are humiliated by the Muslims children in their schools, and no Sunday school teaching since the churches are very small and resources are not available. So we need to build the second generation for the successful movement in church planting. This is due to build strong leadership in the church and transformation of the community by building resources even for the future of the nation. In this type of home, even Muslim children are willing to come and this home can evangelize them.

 Medical Mission – Short-term medical mission trips are very useful in the poor country like Bangladesh. Medical facilities are not enough when we do not have doctors. Government hospitals are not adequate in giving the full service where corruption is a big challenge. On the other hand, the patients trust the foreign doctors and nurses. This type of short-term medical camp helps to open the rural areas for the Gospel. The people are softened and even the opponents to Christians are coming for treatment. There are numbers of people are waiting for such service. In such camps, distribution of medicine, simple diagnosis, distribution of literature, teaching through seminars on health issues,  and prescription are offered.

Skill Development Training.: These trainings are for the Muslim background Christians

who are thrown out from the families. They need to be self-dependent.

With the skill-development training, they are simultaneously discipled through the set courses.

 Welding Training – already in operation
Driving Training – next plan of action
Rural Doctors Training
Garment Machine Operating Training

Sharing testimonies from the Chinese Christians. Sufferings and Survival in Chinese context.

Exchange of visits could be effective for Bangladesh Christians and leaders.


傳福音:巨大的人力需要裝備直接向穆斯林分享福音。更多的當地人需要動員起來。
文獻分發-我們有超過8萬個村莊超過1.6億人,但只有不到1%的、包括天主教徒的基督徒。
門徒訓練:這方面是教會建設最薄弱的地方,特別是在穆斯林當中,所以我們看到有很多人當遇到壓力、害怕被看到和做見證,由於害怕受到逼迫而背道。因為沒有得到適當的門徒訓練,許多人在基督教倫理方面妥協。

培訓:穆斯林背景的基督徒需要固定長期培訓,在基督教上得到改造。宣教士或外籍人士可以教導以一星期為單位的課程,新信徒、植堂者和老信徒/領袖可以參加。這些培訓也需要預算。

出版物:支持印刷門徒訓練資料-這些資料最近由我們制作,並用於我們建立教會地區的細胞小組成員中。每年僅孟加拉長老會的植堂地區就需要超過500份的材料。但是,當其他宣教團隊要求使用這些材料時,則需要更多的拷貝。

支持教會建立者[植堂者]-他們就像使徒行傳中的全職傳道者和宣教士。

我們的團隊每月向教會建立者的家庭支付至少200美元。兒童之家-這家是爲了穆斯林歸信者的第二代。我們的團隊需要爲長遠果效而教育和培養下一代。

醫療團隊-短期醫療團隊在像孟加拉這樣的貧窮國家是非常有用的。這種類型的短期醫療營會幫助打開農村地區的福音工作。在這種營會中,提供藥物分發、簡單的診斷、文獻分發、健康問題培訓會的教學、藥方。

技能發展培訓:這些培訓是為穆斯林背景的基督徒,他們被家庭趕出來。他們需要自立。通過技能開發培訓,他們同時通過設置的課程也接受了門徒培訓。

焊接培訓-已經在進行
駕駛培訓-下一個行動計劃
農村醫生培訓
服裝機械操作培訓

中國基督徒分享見證。中國背景下的痛苦和生存。交流訪問對孟加拉國基督徒和領導可以有效。



POSSIBILITY OF PARTNERSHIP WITH PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF BANGLADESH [PCB} 

與孟加拉長老會合作的可能性

Partnering with Church Building [Planting] ministry – explained above.

Short-term:
Teaching modules – this module is offered for 5-6 days where our students of the Study Center, church planters and members from the local churches are attending. Sometimes even Muslims are also attending to learn about the Bible.

Medical Camp – explained above.

Long-term: Missionaries for the long-term would have visa problems. But still there is scope of oppurtunities of having visas through medical service, or any other skilled resources.

 Medical Hospital – Permanent medical hospitals/clinics could be built to serve the people for the long run.

Children Home – Described above.

School Programs – both for offering free education and also for earning incomes from the students to invest in mission works. Missionaries for short-term is also encouraged to come for 3 months or so where they can teach English and other subjects to the students of the school since the school is in English version. They can slso train teachers who have been teaching in the school.

 Business Mission - for upgrading the economic level of MBCs/churches – to make local

rural churches self-sustaining. We are in a situation where we need to develop the believers

economically so that they can give tithes and offerings.

"4-Bigha Project" – This is for visible church building works and to make a local church

self-reliant. Our mission has adopted a strategy to purchase land of 4-bigha [1.3 acres]

of land which is divided into four sections – a pond, some land for agriculture, land for school

for the community, and for the chapel with pastor’s quarter.

 When such projects are set up, the local believers are inspired that they have some place

to trust, the local non-Christians or the government cannot overthrow us but the government

is trying to protect us.
PCB’s goal is to see 10 such 4-Bigha Projects are established in different strategic locations

of the country. These centers would serve as the regional bases for mission, outreach, training and leadership in the regions.
There are 2 phases of the project: first purchasing land and development [average 30,000 USD as the price varies in different areas] and then building the infrastructure [another 30,000 USD] of building for school, chapel and pastor’s quarter along with other facilities.
PCB has completed 2 such projects, the third one has land already but is waiting for the buildings, then the locations for the fourth and fifth ones are selected in our plan.

Publication of Books – PCB has published so far more than 28 titles. Now almost all stock are going to be finished and we need the printing of more books. These books and booklets are used by our church planters and other mission groups are always asking for materials for their works.

There are evangelistic books answering questions to the Muslims, gospel sharing and also discipleship materials.

Capital investments for Self-reliant Program – PCB does not seek regular and continuous support from the church in the developed countries. But we seek assistance on how to become a self-reliant mission with its physical establishments.

 PCB Conference Center – PCB has the capacity for the accommodation of 40 persons now. But we have plan for upgrading it to accommodate 80 persons in the future. Needs to develop the different materials like sound system, furniture, etc. to run the conference center.

 A separate kitchen and storage are needed for this center.

PCB Mission School – needs building facilities for the class rooms.

Right now we are occupying some of the space of PCB Conference Center but needs to

move into a new location inside PCB land boundary. Because school and conference center

cannot be run in the same building due to avoid noises disturbing to each other.

 We have designated place for a building project for PCB Mission School.

 If we move by the beginning of January next year, we need a building soon.

 PCB technical Institute – We have now almost all equipment’s for the welding training.

Our next target is to start Driving training where we need to arrange all necessary items for

such training in 2017. Among the materials, we need an old car, one instructor, decoration of class room, and student hostel. There are now hostel for the students to stay, but we need instructor, car and other necessary arrangements.

 4-Bigha Project – explained above. With the tithes from the members, fruit sale from the space, crops from the agricultural land and income from fish, a church is self-supporting after 3-5 years time from the completion of the project.


與教會建立[植堂]事工伙伴-我們在超過8萬個村莊需要更多的教會建立者,其中90%的人是穆斯林,不到1%是基督徒。
教導單元-每個單元的課程有5-6天,我們學習中心的學生、教會建立者和當地教會的成員參加。

醫療營-醫生和護士可以設置為期1-2星期的營地為目標社區服務。

兒童之家-用世俗的和基督教的教育,來教育在教會的穆斯林背景基督徒的孩子,為未來的領袖打造一代。

4-Bigha項目

我們的團隊採取的策略是購買4個bigha [5,351平方米]的土地,分成四個部分-一個池塘、一些農耕用地、社區學校土地、和教堂及牧師居住區的土地。

-項目有兩個階段:首先,是購置土地和開發[平均是3萬美元,因為不同地區的價格不同]。其次,基礎設施建設[也需3萬美元],建設學校、教堂和牧師居住區以及其他的一些設施。

出版書籍-孟加拉長老會迄今出版超過了28本書。需要重印和新的印刷。有回答穆斯林問題的、分享福音的傳道書籍,也有門徒訓練的材料。

自力更生計劃的資本投入-

-孟加拉長老教會會議中心-需要發展不同的材料,如音響系統、傢具等,以運行會議中心。
-孟加拉長老教會團隊學校-我們已經為孟加拉長老教會團隊學校的建築項目指定了地點。